Research on Tutoring Methods for Developmental Dyslexia
One of the major obstacles to proper remediation of learning disabilities in children is the frequency of co-morbid (co-occuring conditions). Learning diabilities frequently present as the result of underlying medical conditions (i.e. stroke, TBI of birth complications) or in conjunction with other neurodevelopmental disorders (co-morbidity with ADHD is 25%).
In general, learning disabilities represent pathological development of the language system or inputs/outputs from that system.
General statistics regarding learning disabilities in children:
*Overall prevalence in school-aged children – 10-25% (this varies greatly depending on what is included under LD)
*Most Common Learning Disabilities:
- Dyslexia (5%-10%)
- Math disorder (rare in isolation – 1%)
- Mixed Receptive/Expressive Language D/O (3%)
- Expressive Language D/O (3%-5%)
- Central Auditory Processing D/O (2%-3%)
Though these appear to represent a heterogeneous group of disorders they tend to have their basis in the development of the language centers (i.e. left hemisphere). For this reason, speech and language pathologists and neuropsychologists are uniquely qualified to identify and treat learning disabilities in children.
In two studies conducted by one of our staff neuropsychologists, significant gains were seen in clinic based programs utilizing multi-sensory, sequential methods including Lindamood Bell and Orton-Gillingham.
In a trial of 40 children (mean age 11.23):
In a second study, which evaluated long term outcomes (1 year or more), significant gains were held. Results (40 children) indicated that significant gains were held even one year following discontinuation of treatment: